ARTICLE DOWNLOAD

Characterization of walnut, almond, and pine nut shells regarding chemical composition and extract composition

10$
ARTICLE DOWNLOAD

Characterization of walnut, almond, and pine nut shells regarding chemical composition and extract composition

10$

Carla S. G. P. Queirós, Sofia Cardoso, Ana Lourenço, Joana Ferreira, Isabel Miranda, Maria José V. Lourenço & Helena Pereira 

Abstract

The shells of three important food nuts, walnut, almond, and pine nut, were studied in view of valorization as residues. The shells differed chemically: walnut shells had 10.6% extractives, 30.1% lignin, and 49.7% polysaccharides; almond shells 5.7% extractives, 28.9% lignin, and 56.1% polysaccharides; and pine nut shells 4.5% extractives, 40.5% lignin, and 48.7% polysaccharides. The polysaccharide composition also differed, e.g., glucose/xylose ratio of 1.12, 0.94, and 2.29 for walnut, almond, and pine nut shells, respectively. Walnut and almond shells have a SG lignin (S/G 1.6 and 1.0, respectively) and pine nut shell a G lignin. The lipophilic extracts contained mostly saturated and unsaturated alkanoic acids. The ethanol-water extracts contained total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was moderate (IC50 15.2, 7.9, and 8.2 μg/mL for walnut, almond, and pine nut). The three nut shells fractured easily with little formation of fines.

Only units of this product remain
Year 2020
Language English
Format PDF
DOI 10.1007/s13399-019-00424-2