A review on analysis methods for nerve agent hydrolysis products


A review on analysis methods for nerve agent hydrolysis products


Intan Soraya Che Sulaiman, Buong Woei Chieng, Fellyzra Elvya Pojol, Keat Khim Ong, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul Rashid, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Noor Azilah Mohd Kasim, Norhana Abdul Halim, Siti Aminah Mohd Noor & Victor Feizal Knight 



This review article provides an overview of the background of nerve agents (NAs) and their hydrolysis products. The analytical techniques that are used for the analysis of hydrolysis products are also discussed. The analysis methods include the chromatographic, mass spectrometric, electrophoretic, and sensing technologies that are currently available for the detection of exposure to a number of hydrolysis products of NAs.


All reviewed information was gathered through a detailed search of Scopus, PubMed, and the World Wide Web using relevant keywords, e.g., NA, hydrolysis products, and methylphosphonic acid.


Most analyses of NA hydrolysis products still rely on chromatographic techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography. Analyses based on mass spectrometry are now fairly routine and can be further improved by providing analyses with precise and accurate masses and faster scan speeds that provide further gains in sensitivity. Although these techniques have high selectivity and sensitivity, most of them are rarely applied to real samples or suffer from destructive real sample analysis. In addition, there is still a lack of studies on the development of portable sensors for the detection of NA hydrolysis products.


Although the analysis of NA hydrolysis products has experienced a transition from qualitative analysis toward rapid and quantitative identification, portable, and fast sensing technologies have not been well established or investigated extensively. In the future, more analysis methods are expected to be developed and may involve the development of sensors and lab-on-chip devices that should address specificity, sensitivity, stability, response time, and repeatability/reproducibility.

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Year 2020
Language English
Format PDF
DOI 10.1007/s11419-019-00513-x